Clostridium perfringens toxin B

Background

C. perfringens is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium that is classified into 5 toxinotypes (A, B, C, D, and E) according to the 4 major toxins they produce.1 The toxins are pathogenic and common causes of diarrhea, enterocolitis (inflammation of the small and large intestine), enterotoxemia, and colitis (inflammation of the colon) in horses, goats, pigs, and cattle.2 C. perfringens are typically nonpathogenic and present in the gastrointestinal tract in low copy number. However, antibiotics use, dietary imbalances, and other stressors may cause overgrowth of C. perfringens, leading to pathogenesis and GI disease.3 The disease may occur sporadically or as an outbreak, and clinically affected neonatal foals have an elevated risk of rapid death. Because nonpathogenic serotypes are common, diagnosis is based on identification of pathogenic C. perfringens in fecal samples. PCR detection for toxin-producing genes is recommended.4 Fluxergy’s rapid detection test is pathogen toxin specific and provides reliable detection in a point-of-use format.

Key Benefits

Simple workflow

No sample preparation

Automated data interpretation

Sample to result in 30 minutes

No anaerobic culture required

Specific toxin-producing gene

Assay Specifications

Sample Type Fecal Swab
Species Equine
Storage Condition Fluxergy Card – Room temperature @ ~23° C
Fluxergy Buffers – Frozen @ -20°C

Kit Contents

  • 6” Rayon swab
  • Fluxergy C. perfringens toxin B Buffer 1
  • Fluxergy C. perfringens toxin B Buffer 2
  • Fluxergy Card

Customer supplied reagents and supplies

  • Clinical sample for testing

Sample collection method

Fecal swab. It is recommended that the head of the swab is fully coated with sample material. For optimal performance, collect feces to be tested in a sterile 2 oz specimen cup. Fully submerge the head of the swab into the sample for 5 seconds. Place stool coated swab into the swab tube. The opposite end of the tube serves as a tight-fitting cap. Store sample at 4°C if not testing immediately.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Fluxergy’s C. perfringens toxin B assay is for Research Use Only (RUO). It is not intended for diagnostic use.
  • Fluxergy’s C. perfringens toxin B assay is compatible only with the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta device.
  • All specimens should be handled as potentially infectious agents and according to universal safety precautions.
  • This Fluxergy C. perfringens toxin B assay is compatible only for equine fecal swabs.
  • Contamination of the sample and kit contents may lead to erroneous results. Use aseptic technique and a clean workspace whenever possible.
  • Store Fluxergy assay kit at recommended storage temperature and conduct assay within specified environment (e.g. temperature and humidity) for optimal performance.
  • Follow appropriate specimen collection, storage and processing for optimal performance.
  • Use Fluxergy supplied swabs, reagents, pipettes and pipette tips to conduct assay for optimal performance.

Detection of Clinical Sample

Example amplification curve for clinical sample detection. PCR was conducted using the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta with clinical C. perfringens toxin B positive equine feces. Positive result agreement was seen with the Fluxergy and clinical reference lab assays.

References

  1. Uzal, F. A., Vidal, J. E., McClane, B. A., & Gurjar, A. A. (2010). Clostridium perfringens toxins involved in mammalian veterinary diseases. The open toxinology journal, 2, 24.
  2. Silva, R. O. S., Oliveira Junior, C. A., Guedes, R. M. C., & Lobato, F. C. F. (2015). Clostridium perfringens: a review of the disease in pigs, horses and broiler chickens. Ciência Rural, 45(6), 1027-1034.
  3. Traub-Dargatz, J. L., & Jones, R. L. (1993). Clostridia-associated enterocolitis in adult horses and foals. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice, 9(2), 411-421.
  4. Allison J. Stewart, Clostridia-associated Enterocolitis in Horses. Merck Veterinary Manual.