EQUINE CORONAVIRUS

Background

Coronaviruses belong to the Coronaviridae family of RNA viruses that cause intestinal and respiratory illness in humans, as well as domestic animals such as: chickens, dogs, cats, pigs, horses, camels and cattle. Equine Coronaviruses (ECoV) can spread throughout the body, but many strains attack epithelial cells located in the respiratory tract or the intestinal wall, resulting in localized infections. When located in the intestine, the viruses damages the villi (fingerlike projections that line the track), and as a result causes malabsorption and diarrhea.1 ECoV spreads from horse to horse, and because infected animals shed the virus in their manure, it is assumed that it spreads via the fecal-to-oral route when a horse consumes feed or water contaminated with the virus. For now, the best way to stop the spread of coronavirus is to keep sick horses isolated. Patients infected with ECoV have unspecific clinical signs such as fever, lethargy, and anorexia. Currently, there is no vaccine available for ECoV, the only treatment available is supportive care to manage the signs until recovery. ECoV can be diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique that confirms the presence of a pathogen by identifying nucleic acids. Currently, PCR detection of the virus in feces is the only diagnostic method available.2 This Fluxergy ECoV PCR assay has been designed to target a conserved region of this virus and allow for rapid detection of the pathogen within an hour of sample collection.

Key Benefits

Simple workflow

No sample preparation

Automated data interpretation

Inhouse outbreak prevention

Sample to result in 30 minutes

Assay Specifications

Sample Type Fecal Swab
Species Equine
Storage Condition Fluxergy Card – Room temperature @ ~23° C
Fluxergy Buffers – Frozen @ -20°C

Kit Contents

  • 6” Rayon swab
  • Fluxergy ECoV Buffer 1
  • Fluxergy ECoV Buffer 2
  • Fluxergy Card

Customer supplied reagents and supplies

  • Clinical sample for testing

Sample collection method

Fecal swab. It is recommended that the head of the swab is fully coated with sample material. For optimal performance, collect feces to be tested in a sterile 2 oz specimen cup. Fully submerge the head of the swab into the sample for 5 seconds. Place stool coated swab into the swab tube. The opposite end of the tube serves as a tight-fitting cap. Store sample in refrigerator or at 4°C if not testing immediately after sample collection.

Intended use

The Fluxergy ECoV assay is a qualitative test for the rapid detection of pathogenic ECoV in equine fecal samples.

Positive PCR Result: indicates that DNA or RNA of the target organism is present in the tested sample.

Negative PCR Result: indicates that DNA or RNA of the target organism was not detected in the tested sample. However, a negative PCR results may also indicate that the number of target organisms is below the limit of detection.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Fluxergy’s ECoV assay is for Research Use Only (RUO). It is not intended for diagnostic use.
  • Fluxergy’s ECoV assay is compatible only with the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta device.
  • All specimens should be handled as potentially infectious agents and according to universal safety precautions.
  • This Fluxergy ECoV assay is compatible only for equine fecal swabs.
  • Contamination of the sample and kit contents may lead to erroneous results. Use aseptic technique and a clean workspace whenever possible.
  • Store Fluxergy assay kit at recommended storage temperature and conduct assay within specified environment (e.g. temperature and humidity) for optimal performance.
  • Follow appropriate specimen collection, storage and processing for optimal performance.
  • Use Fluxergy supplied swabs, reagents, pipettes and pipette tips to conduct assay for optimal performance.

Detection of Clinical Sample

PCR was conducted using the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta with clinical ECoV positive equine feces. Positive result agreement was seen with the Fluxergy and clinical reference lab assays.

References

  1. Fielding CL, Higgins JK, Higgins JC, et al. Disease associated with Equine Coronavirus Infection and High Case Fatality Rate. J Vet Intern Med. 2015; 29:307-310
  2. Stewart, A. J. (2016). Coronavirus in Horses. Retrieved from Merck Veterinary Manual.