Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus

Background

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a gram-positive coccoid bacterium found in the upper respiratory tract of horses, pigs, and humans. In horses, S. zooepidemicus is a commensal of nasopharynx and an opportunistic pathogen causing respiratory disease. Although, it is mainly associated with pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and mastitis in horses, it has the potential to infect humans and causes more severe infections. Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, another subspecies of Streptococcus equi, is the causative agent of strangles. The similarity between the DNA of the two close-related subspecies is over 92%, making the molecular detection and differentiation of each subspecies more challenging. Fluxergy’s S. zooepidemicus rapid detection test is designed to have high specificity to the S. zooepidemicus genome to minimize the chance of false-positive results and provides reliable detection in a point-of-use format.

Key Benefits

Simple workflow

No sample preparation

Automated data interpretation

Sample to result in 30 minutes

Highly specific to S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus

Assay Specifications

Sample Type Nasal swab
Species Equine
Storage Condition Fluxergy Card – Room temperature @ ~23° C
Fluxergy Buffers – Frozen @ -20°C

Kit Contents

  • 6” Rayon swab
  • Fluxergy S. zooepidemicus Buffer 1
  • Fluxergy S. zooepidemicus Buffer 2
  • Fluxergy Card

Customer supplied reagents and supplies

  • Clinical sample for testing

Sample collection method

Collect nasal secretions using a 6” rayon swab. Restrain horse and wear gloves for biosafety. Advance swabs into ventral meatus of right or left nostril. Allow swabs to soak for 5-10 seconds, and then gently rotate swab.

Intended use

The Fluxergy S. zooepidemicus assay is a qualitative test for the rapid detection of pathogenic S. zooepidemicus in equine nasal swabs.

Positive PCR Result:  indicates that DNA or RNA of the target organism is present in the tested sample.

Negative PCR Result: indicates that DNA or RNA of the target organism was not detected in the tested sample. However, a negative PCR results may also indicate that the number of target organisms is below the limit of detection.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Fluxergy’s S. zooepidemicus assay is for Research Use Only (RUO). It is not intended for diagnostic use.
  • Fluxergy’s S. zooepidemicus assay is compatible only with the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta device.
  • All specimens should be handled as potentially infectious agents and according to universal safety precautions.
  • This Fluxergy S. zooepidemicus assay is compatible only for equine nasal swabs. The sample type must be specified as each buffer is specially crafted for the sample.
  • Contamination of the sample and kit contents may lead to erroneous results. Use aseptic technique and a clean workspace whenever possible.
  • Store Fluxergy assay kit at recommended storage temperature and conduct assay within specified environment (e.g. temperature and humidity) for optimal performance.
  • Follow appropriate specimen collection, storage and processing for optimal performance.
  • Use Fluxergy supplied swabs, reagents, pipettes and pipette tips to conduct assay for optimal performance.

Detection of Clinical Sample

Clinical sample detection. Clinical sample, specifically equine nasal swab positive for S. zooepidemicus, was tested using the Fluxergy Analyzer Beta and S. zooepidemicus assay. Results showed amplification and positive agreement with the clinical reference laboratory assay.

References

  1. Kinoshita, Yuta, Hidekazu Niwa, and Yoshinari Katayama. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detecting Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and analysis of its use with three simple methods of extracting DNA from equine respiratory tract specimens. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 76.9 (2014): 1271-1275.
  2. Stevens, Dennis L., and Edward L. Kaplan, eds. Streptococcal infections: clinical aspects, microbiology, and molecular pathogenesis. Oxford University Press, USA, 2000.
  3. Pelkonen, Sinikka, et al. Transmission of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection from horses to humans. Emerging infectious diseases 19.7 (2013): 1041.
  4. Korman, Tony M., et al. Fatal case of toxic shock-like syndrome due to group C streptococcus associated with superantigen exotoxin. Journal of clinical microbiology 42.6 (2004): 2866-2869.